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11.1 一般现在时的用法
1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频腮度的时间状语连用.时间状语: every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday.例如:
I leave home for school at 7 every morning. 每天早上我七点离开家.
2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实.例如:
The earth moves around the sun. 地球绕太阳转动.
Shanghai lies in the east of China. 上海位于中国东部.
3) 表示格言或警句.例如:
Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败.
例:Columbus proved that the earth is round. 哥伦布证实了地球是圆的.
4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性.例如:
I don't want so much. 我不要那么多.
Ann writes good English but does not speak well. 安英语写得不错,讲的可不行.
比较:Now I put the sugar in the cup. 把糖放入杯子.
I am doing my homework now. 我正在做功课.
11.2 一般过去时的用法
1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态.例如:时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等.例如:
Where did you go just now? 刚才你上哪儿去了?
When I was a child, I often played football in the street. 我是个孩子的时候,常在马路上踢足球.
Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome.
3)句型:It is time for sb. to do sth 到……时间了 该……了.例如:It is time for you to go to bed. 你该睡觉了.
It is time that sb. did sth. 时间已迟了 早该……了 ,例如It is time you went to bed. 你早该睡觉了.
would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事'.例如:I'd rather you came tomorrow.还是明天来吧.
4) wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等,而一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在.例如:I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些.
比较:Christine was an invalid all her life.(含义:她已不在人间.)
Christine has been an invalid all her life.(含义:她现在还活着)
Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years. (含义:达比太太已不再住在肯塔基州.)
Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years. (含义:现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去)
注意: 用过去时表示现在,表示委婉语气.
1)动词want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等.例如:
Did you want anything else? 您还要些什么吗?
I wondered if you could help me. 能不能帮我一下.
2)情态动词 could, would.例如:
Could you lend me your bike? 你的自行车,能借用一些吗?
11.3 used to / be used to
used to + do:过去常常表示过去习惯性的动作或状态,但如今已不存在.例如:
Mother used not to be so forgetful. 老妈过去没那么健忘.
Scarf used to take a walk. 斯卡夫过去常常散步.
be used to + doing: 对……已感到习惯,或习惯于,to是介词,后需加名词或动名词.例如:
He is used to a vegetarian diet.
Scarf is used to taking a walk. 斯卡夫现在已习惯于散步了.
---- Your phone number again? I ___ quite catch it.
---- It's 69568442.
A. didn't B. couldn't C. don't D. can't
答案A. 本句虽没有明确的时间状语,但从语意上看出,在听的时候没有听懂这个动作发生在过去,因此应用过去时.
11.4 一般将来时
1) shall用于第一人称,常被will 所代替.will 在陈述句中用于各人称,在征求意见时常用于第二人称.例如:
Which paragraph shall I read first? 我先读哪一段呢?
Will you be at home at seven this evening? 今晚七点回家好吗?
2) be going to +不定式,表示将来.
a. 主语的意图,即将做某事.例如:What are you going to do tomorrow? 明天打算作什么呢?
b. 计划,安排要发生的事.例如:The play is going to be produced next month.这出戏下月开播.
c. 有迹象要发生的事.例如:Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm. 看那乌云,快要下雨了.
3) be +不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事.例如:
We are to discuss the report next Saturday.我们下星期六讨论这份报告.
4) be about to +不定式,意为马上做某事.例如:
He is about to leave for Beijing. 他马上要去北京.
注意:be about to do 不能与tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用.
11.5 be going to / will 用于条件句时,be going to表将来,will表意愿.例如:
If you are going to make a journey, you'd better get ready for it as soon as possible.
Now if you will take off your clothes, we will fit the new clothes on you in front of the mirror.
11.6 be to和be going to
be to 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事,be going to 表示主观的打算或计划.例如:
I am to play football tomorrow afternoon. 明天下午我去踢球.(客观安排)
I'm going to play football tomorrow afternoon. 明天下午我想去踢球.(主观安排)
11.7 一般现在时表将来
1)下列动词come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现在时可以表示将来,主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情.例如:
The train leaves at six tomorrow morning. 火车明天上午六点开.
When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes. 汽车什么时候开?十分钟后.
2)以here, there等开始的倒装句,表示动作正在进行.例如:
Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming. 车来了.
There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing. 铃响了.
When Bill comes (不是will come), ask him to wait for me. 比尔来后,让他等我.
I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there. 我到了那里,就写信给你.
4)在动词hope, take care that, make sure that等的宾语从句中.例如:
I hope they have a nice time next week. 我希望他们下星期玩得开心.
Make sure that the windows are closed before you leave the room. 离开房间前,务必把窗户关了.
11.8 用现在进行时表示将来
下列动词come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return等现在进行时可以表示将来.例如:
I'm leaving tomorrow. 明天我要走了.
Are you staying here till next week? 你会在这儿呆到下周吗?
11.9 现在完成时
现在完成时用来表示之前已发生或完成的动作或状态,其结果的影响现在还存在;也可表示持续到现在的动作或状态.其构成:have (has) +过去分词.
11.10 比较一般过去时与现在完成时
一般过去时的时间状语:yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, in October, just now等,皆为具体的时间状语.
现在完成时的时间状语:for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in past years, always等,皆不确定的时间状语.
共同的时间状语:this morning, tonight, this April, now, already, recently, lately 等.
3)现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的,如live, teach, learn, work, study, know..
一般过去时常用的非持续性动词有come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married等.例如:
I saw this film yesterday. (强调看的动作发生过了)
I have seen this film. (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了)
Why did you get up so early? (强调起床的动作已发生过了)
Who hasn't handed in his paper? (强调有卷子未交,疑为不公平竞争)
He has been in the League for three years. (在团内的状态可延续)
He has been a League member for three years. (是团员的状态可持续)
句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如yesterday, last, week, in 1960)时,不能使用现在完成时,要用过去时.
(错)Tom has written a letter to his parents last night.
(对)Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.
11.11 用于现在完成时的句型
1)It is the first / second time. that…结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时.例如:
It is the first time that I have visited the city. 这是我第一次访问这城市.
This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌.
注意:It was the third time that the boy had been late.
2)This is +形容词最高级+that…结构,that 从句要用现在完成时.例如:
This is the best film that I've (ever) seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影.
(1) ---Do you know our town at all?
---No, this is the first time I ___ here.
A. was B. have been C. came D. am coming
答案B. This is the first time 后面所加从句应为现在完成时,故选B.
(2) ---Have you ____ been to our town before?
---No, it's the first time I ___ here.
A. even, come B. even, have come C. ever, come D. ever, have come
答案D. ever意为曾经或无论何时,反意词为never,此两词常用于完成时.
(错)I have received his letter for a month.
(对)I haven't received his letter for almost a month.
11.12 比较since和for
Since 用来说明动作起始时间,for用来说明动作延续时间长度.例如:
I have lived here for more than twenty years.我住在这儿二十多年了.
I have lived here since I was born. 我从出生起就住在这儿了.
注意:并非有for 作为时间状语的句子都用现在完成时.
I worked here for more than twenty years. (我现在已不在这里工作.)
I have worked here for many years.(现在我仍在这里工作.)
1)(对) Tom has studied Russian for three years. = Tom began to study Russian three years ago, and is still studying it now.
2)(错) Harry has got married for six years. = Harry began to get married six years ago, and is still getting married now.
显然,第二句不对,它应改为 Harry got married six years ago. 或 Harry has been married for six years.
11.13 since的四种用法
1) since +过去一个时间点(如具体的年、月、日期、钟点、1980, last month, half past six).例如:
I have been here since 1989. 1989起,我一直在这儿.
2) since +一段时间+ ago.例如:
I have been here since five months ago. 我在这儿,已经有五个月了.
3) since +从句.例如:
Great changes have taken place since you left. 你走后,变化可大了.
Great changes have taken place since we were here. 我们走后,变化可大了.
4) It is +一段时间+ since从句.例如:
It is two years since I became a postgraduate student. 我考上研究生有两年了.
11.14 延续动词与瞬间动词
1) 用于完成时的区别
延续动词表示经验、经历; 瞬间动词表示行为的结果,不能与表示段的时间状语连用.例如:
He has completed the work. 他已完成了那项工作. (表结果)
I've known him since then. 我从那时起就认识他了.(表经历)
2) 用于till / until从句的差异
延续动词用于肯定句,表示做……直到…… 瞬间动词用于否定句,表示到……,才…….例如:
He didn't come back until ten o'clock. 他到10 点才回来.
He slept until ten o'clock. 他一直睡到10点.
1. You don't need to describe her. I ___ her several times.
A. had met B. have met C. met D. meet
答案B. 首先本题后句强调对现在的影响,我知道她的模样,你不用描述.再次,several times告知为反复发生的动作,因此用现在完成时.
2. ---I'm sorry to keep you waiting.
---Oh, not at all. I ___ here only a few minutes.
A. have been B. had been C. was D. will be
答案A. 等待的动作由过去开始,持续到现在,应用现在完成时.
11.15 过去完成时
1) 概念:表示过去的过去
----|----------|--------|----> 其构成是had +过去分词构成.
那时以前 那时 现在
2) 用法
a. 在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句.例如:
She said (that)she had never been to Paris. 她告诉我她曾去过巴黎.
b. 状语从句
When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. 警察到达时,小偷们早就跑了.
c. 表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示原本…,未能….例如:
We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't. 那时我们希望你能来,但是你没有来.
3) 过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as.例如:
He said that he had learned some English before. 他说过他以前学过一些英语.
By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself. 到了十二岁那年,爱迪生开始自己谋生.
Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party.
The students ___ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she ___ in the office.
A. had written, left B,were writing, has left C. had written, had left D. were writing, had left
答案D. 把书忘在办公室发生在去取书这一过去的动作之前,因此忘了书这一动作发生在过去的过去,用过去完成时.句中when表示的是时间的一点,表示在同学们正忙于……这一背景下,when所引导的动作发生.因此前一句应用过去进行时.
注意: had hardly… when 还没等…… 就…….例如:
I had hardly opened the door when I he hit me. 我刚打开门,他就打了我.
had no sooner…than 刚…… 就…….例如:
He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it. 他刚买了这辆车,转眼又卖了.
11.16 用一般过去时代替过去完成时
1) 两个动作如按顺序发生,又不强调先后,或用then,and,but 等连词时,多用一般过去时.例如:
When she saw the mouse,she screamed. 她看到老鼠,就叫了起来.
My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it. 姑妈给了我一顶帽子,我把它丢了.
2 ) 两个动作相继发生,可用一般过去时;如第一个动作需要若干时间完成,用过去完成时.例如:
When I heard the news, I was very excited.
3) 叙述历史事实,可不用过去完成时,而只用一般过去时.例如:
Our teacher told us that Columbus discovered America in 1492.
11.17 将来完成时
1) 构成will have done
2) 概念
a. 状态完成:表示某事继续到将来某一时为止一直有的状态.例如:
They will have been married for 20 years by then. 到那时他们结婚将有二十年了.
b. 动作完成:表示将来某一时或另一个将来的动作之前,已经完成的动作或获得的经验.例如:
You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow. 明天此时,你已经到达上海了.
11.18 现在进行时
a. 表示现在(指说话人说话时)正在发生的事情.例如:
We are waiting for you. 我们正在等你.
b. 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行.例如:
Mr. Green is writing another novel. 他在写另一部小说.(说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态.)
c. 表示渐变,这样的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin等.例如:
The leaves are turning red. 叶子在变红.
It's getting warmer and warmer. 天越来越热了.
d. 与always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主色彩.例如:
You are always changing your mind. 你老是改变主意.
My dictionary ___, I have looked for it everywhere but still___ it.
A. has lost, don't find B. is missing, don't find C. has lost, haven't found D. is missing, haven't found.
答案D. 前句是一个仍在持续的状态,应用进行时,由于没有找到,其影响仍然存在,应用完成时,瞬间动词用于否定式时可用于完成时.
11.19 不用进行时的动词
1)表示事实状态的动词,如have, belong, possess, cost, owe, exist, include, contain, matter, weigh, measure, continue等.例如:I have two brothers. 我有两兄弟.
This house belongs to my sister. 这房子是我姐的.
2)表示心理状态的动词,如know, realize, think see, believe, suppose, imagine, agree, recognize, remember, want, need, forget, prefer, mean, understand, love, hate等.例如:I need your help. 我需要你的帮助.
He loves her very much. 他爱她很深.
3)瞬间动词,如accept, receive, complete, finish, give, allow, decide, refuse等.例如:
I accept your advice. 我接受你的劝告.
4)系动词,如seem, remain, lie, see, hear, smell, feel, taste, get, become, turn等.例如:
You seem a little tired. 你看上去有点累.
11.20 过去进行时
3) 常用的时间状语有this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while等.例如:
My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself. 我兄弟骑车时摔了下来,受了伤.
It was raining when they left the station. 他们离开车站时,正下着雨.
When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining. 我到达山顶时,阳光灿烂.
1) Mary ___ a dress when she cut her finger.
A. made B. is making C. was making D. makes
答案C. 割伤手指是已发生的事情,应用过去时.同时,when表时间的同时性,玛丽在做衣服时提供事情发生的背景,因此用过去进行时.
2) As she ___ the newspaper, Granny ___ asleep.
A. read;was falling B. was reading; fell C. was reading; was falling D. read;fell
答案B.句中的as = when, while,意为当……之时.描述一件事发生的背景时,用过去进行;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生.句意为 在她看报纸时,奶奶睡着了.句中的 fell(fall的过去时),是系动词,后跟形容词,如:fall sick.